QForm 2D/3D

QForm 2D/3D

Metal Forming Simulation Software

QForm 2D/3D is a Forging Simulation Software designed by forgers to meet the demands of the forge engineer. The program behaves like a virtual forging shop where the user has control of all the variables. He can develop the sequence of technological operations required to produce the forging including upsetting, blocker, and finisher blows selecting the required equipment, materials? and the lubricant used. Preliminary and intermediate operations like reducer rolling, heating, cooling and flash trimming also can be included in the technological chain.

Major areas of application

QFORM3D software was developed in 2002 by QuantorForm Ltd. as an extension of QFORM2D. The software combines 2D and 3D simulation and it retains the easy interface from QFORM2D. For 3D simulations you simply select “solid body models” for the dies and the workpiece as the initial geometry data. QFORM3D is used for the simulation of hot, warm and cold forming processes. The software predicts material flow defects, identifies the temperature distribution, and calculates the load and consumption of energy for the deformation.

QForm 2D3D


QFORM3D combines 2D and 3D simulation in a single software package that gives an enormous advantage to the user. The software has retained the broad functionality and the ease of use of its 2D predecessor. The only thing required in order to convert to a 3D simulation is to select “solid body models” for the dies and the workpiece, instead of the 2D cross-sectional contours required for 2D. All other data are specified in the same fashion as for the 2D simulation, using a convenient Data Preparation Wizard to minimize the probability of data entry errors. The integration of 2D and 3D simulation in the same software package provides a unique opportunity to efficiently simulate processes consisting of several forging impressions, the first of which is axially symmetrical and can be solved quickly in a 2D setting (e. g. upsetting) and the subsequent impressions which require full-scale 3D simulation. The object-oriented software structure creates a very comfortable and fully integrated user environment. The data preparation can be visually monitored and the computation is accompanied by the simultaneous graphic display of the results. Thus the software is an efficient tool for the computer assessment of the process, which is much more economical and faster than the debugging of the technology by hit and miss. The software supports the import of IGES and STEP files, which avoids a loss of accuracy typical in STL format files used by other simulation packages. Surface models of the dies created by PowerShape (Delcam Plc) also can be effectively imported to QForm. Using the full and accurate die and workpiece geometry as the initial data and also having the expertise of non-linear approximation for the solution of 2D problems, QFORM3D was the first commercial software to use quadratic finite element approximation in order to solve 3D problems. This allowed a considerable increase in the solution accuracy, a reduction in the loss of volume and a high solution reliability and certainty for forging flaws prediction. The description of surfaces by the non-linear finite element model allows remeshing as often as needed, without ‘shouldering’ the surface at tight curves, which is characteristic of linear elements.

How the QForm 2D 3D Forging Simulation Software works

Stage 1.

Prepare the solid tool and workpiece models in your CAD system and import them to the QShape editor.

QForm 2D3D

From your CAD system, save the solid model in IGES or STEP format and open it in the graphic editor QShape. Surface IGES models of the dies created by PowerShape (Delcam Plc) also can be effectively imported to QShape.

Stage 2.

Specify the required process parameters: the initial temperature of the workpiece, cooling time, and flash thickness, etc. Select the suitable equipment, workpiece material and lubricant from the database.

The initial data setting is different from QFORM2D pecifying the workpiece shape, you have to specify an arbitrary shape (3D simulation), instead of a round shape (axial-symmetric deformation) or a flat cross-section (flat deformation). All other parameters are set identically with the 2D material flow simulation.

QForm 2D3D

Stage 3.

Start up the computation by clicking the “Simulate” button.

The simulation process advances automatically and does not require any user intervention. The smart system mesh generator provides an optimal finite element mesh in any simulation stage.

QForm 2D3D

Stage 4.

Review the simulation results.

A convenient postprocessor allows for viewing of the simulation results – the deformation, stress, temperature and contact strain distribution in the workpiece, deformation force, work and energy varying, as the ram moves, and finally the stresses, deformation and surface deflection in the tool.

Computation capabilities

The software provides the computation of both the 3D forming, when workpieces of an arbitrary shape are forged, and the pre-stressed state of the dies. The forging is calculated with two tools. The tools move along the Z-axis;

The initial geometry is imported to QFORM from CAD systems;

The workpiece and tool material as well as lubricant and equipment are defined within the database, which is set up for every user on a case-by-case basis;

The process parameters (time, final distance between the dies, etc.) are specified using an easy and clear Initial Data Preparation Editor;

The workpiece deformation is considered with regard for thermal processes. The dies are designed without regard for the thermal field. The heat transfer between the workpiece and the tools is considered by the heat transfer factor;

When calculating the form change, the software can consider the symmetry axes preliminarily marked in the QDraft graphic module;

The simulated process steps include the cooling of the workpiece on the air and in the die, forming of arbitrarily shaped workpieces in dies of an arbitrary configuration;

The workpiece forming steps are calculated for the crank press, hammer, hydraulic and screw presses;

The process flow is considered as a process chain. Computation of all steps within a process chain, which can include up to 99 steps, is performed automatically;

Simulation of a single process chain comprising both 2D deformation, e. g. the upsetting of a cylinder-shaped ingot, and 3D deformation has been implemented;

Automatic simulation of repeated strokes in the same impression has been implemented for hammers and screw presses;

The option of removing parts of the workpiece according to a preset contour between the steps, which corresponds to the punching of holes and trimming of flash, has been added;

The option of cutting off along a preset contour the ‘excess’ material, which goes beyond the focal point of deformation directly in the computation progress, has been added to cut the dimensions of the model and save the time;

The option of manual positioning of the workpiece before the commencement of a step, including the workpiece displacement, rotation and mirror imaging of the workpiece relative to any axis or plane, has been added;

The workpiece is simulated as a solid body moving by gravity, friction and inertia, when it is placed on the lower die, to identify its natural stable position before the commencement of forming simulation;

The pre-stressed state of the dies is simulated under the impact of the contact stresses arising, when the workpiece is formed;

Besides the automatic mode, the final distance between the dies can be also specified in any point determined by the X and Y coordinates.